Nitrogen level and disease detection in Wheat Leaves using Image Processing
Spectral vegetation indices (SVIs) have been widely used to detect different plant diseases. Wheat leaf rust and other diseases manifests itself as an early symptom with the leaves turning yellow and orange. The sign of advancing disease is the leaf colour changing to brown while the final symptom is when the leaf becomes dry. The goal of this work is to develop spectral disease indices for the detection of leaf rust. The reflectance spectra of the wheat’s infected and non-infected leaves at different disease stages were collected using a spectroradiometer. As ground truth, the ratio of the disease-affected area to the total leaf area and the fractions of the different symptoms were extracted using an RGB digital camera. Fractions of the various disease symptoms extracted by the digital camera and the measured reflectance spectra of the infected leaves were used as input to the spectral mixture analysis (SMA). Then, the spectral reflectance of the different disease symptoms were estimated using SMA and the least squares method. The reflectance of different disease symptoms in the 450~1000 nm were studied carefully using the Fisher function. Two spectral disease indices were developed based on the reflectance at the 605, 695 and 455 nm wavelengths. In both indices, the R 2 between the estimated and the observed was as high as 0.94 We propose the development of deep sparse extreme learning machines (DSELM) fusion and genetic algorithm (GA) to normalize plant images as well as to reduce color variability due to a variation of sunlight intensities. We also apply the DSELM in image segmentation to differentiate wheat leaves from a complex background. In this paper, four moments of color distribution of the leaf images (mean, variance, skewness, and kurtosis) are extracted and utilized as predictors in the nutrient estimation. We combine a number of DSELMs with committee machine and optimize them using the GA to estimate nitrogen content in leaves.